Frequently asked questions
What is a museum?
The Museums Association (MA) agreed a definition in 1998. It says: 'Museums enable people to explore collections for inspiration, learning and enjoyment. They are institutions that collect, safeguard and make accessible artefacts and specimens, which they hold in trust for society.' This definition includes art galleries with collections of works of art, as well as museums with historical collections of objects.
How many museums are there in the UK?
It is estimated that there are about 2,500 museums in the UK, depending on what you include. Over 1,800 museums have been accredited by the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council (MLA)*. Registration under the MLA Museum Accreditation Scheme indicates that a museum has achieved a nationally approved standard in management, collections care and delivery of information and visitor services.
The Museums & Galleries Yearbook, published annually by the MA, offers the UK’s most comprehensive list of current museums.
Click here for more information about the Yearbook
* Source: www.mla.gov.uk
What different types of museum are there?
There are several different types of museum, depending on how they are owned, managed and funded. These include:
• National museums are established and funded by central government through the Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS). They are generally larger institutions that hold collections considered to be of national importance. There are currently 54 national museums in the UK
• Local authority museums are owned and run by town, parish, borough, city, or county councils and other local authority bodies. They generally house collections that reflect local history and heritage
• University museums are owned and managed by universities and their collections often relate to specific areas of academic interest
• English Heritage properties are buildings and monuments of historic interest, many of which also hold collections inside. They are managed by English Heritage, a non-departmental public body of the UK government
• Independent museums are owned by registered charities and other independent bodies or trusts. They are not funded directly by the state but may receive support through government programmes such as Renaissance in the Regions
• National Trust properties are similar to English Heritage sites, but are owned and run by the National Trust (or the National Trust for Scotland), an independent charity. The National Trust remit extends to historic houses and gardens, castles, industrial monuments and social history sites, as well as areas of natural beauty
• Regimental museums and armouries collate and preserve Britain's military heritage and are often managed by the armed services
• Britain’s unoccupied royal palaces are run by Historic Royal Palaces, an independent charity
Are all museums in the UK free?
The free admissions policy applies mainly to museums that are funded and managed by the government. Therefore it is free to access the permanent collections in all national museums, though they may still charge for temporary exhibitions. Almost all university museums and a large number of local authority museums also operate a free admissions policy. Most - but not all - independent museums charge an entry fee.
I’m looking for a job in museums and galleries
Museums Journal advertises jobs for the museums and heritage sector. Museums Journal Jobs is posted twice monthly to all MA members. If you are a non-member you can also access our Jobs Online database when you register for free on the website.
Click here to join the Museum Association
Click here to register on the Museums Association website
Click here to access Jobs Online
How can I train to work in museums and galleries?
There are lots of training and development opportunities for people who want to develop a career in museums. At the MA we offer several professional development schemes to help those volunteering and working in museums get ahead. Our extensive range of museum specific training is open to everyone working in the sector, whether you are already employed or trying to get that first job.
Getting your first job...
Events and training…
People from ethnic minorities and those who are deaf or disabled are under-represented in the museum sector. The MA’s Diversify scheme, which is no longer running, encouraged museums to make bursaries and traineeships available to help make museum careers more accessible to people from these groups.
Click here for more information on Diversify
Most people following a professional or management career in museums have a postgraduate professional qualification. The Museums & Galleries Yearbook lists all available postgraduate museum studies courses.
Click here to purchase a Yearbook
How much do people working in museums earn?
Although many people find working in museums and galleries a rewarding and interesting career, it is not a very well paid one. The MA published a salary survey in 2004 which found that almost everyone working in museums earned less than people working in comparable roles elsewhere. According to 2009 figures, the average starting salary for a curator is £16,000 - £19,250, with front-of-house pay lower still. The MA is committed to addressing the issue of low pay and has produced best practice salary guidelines.
Click here to read the survey results and see current salary guidelines
I want to volunteer in a museum
Almost all museums and galleries have volunteers working for them. They work in all sections of the museum from front-of-house to exhibitions departments. Some museums are entirely run by volunteers. At least half, according to a recent survey by the Museums, Libraries and Archives council, would like more volunteers.
Although the MA does not set up placements, you can find tips and resources on our website on how to get started as a volunteer.
Click here for more information on applying for volunteer placements
It is best to approach individual museums and galleries directly to find out if they need new volunteers. Many large museums have volunteer managers. Don't get put off if national museums have no volunteer vacancies - many local authority and independent museums will welcome your services.
Museums usually offer different kinds of opportunity to long term volunteers, and students looking for work experience, so make it clear which you are interested in.
I would like to work for the Museums Association
The MA is an equal opportunities employer, which means all our jobs are advertised externally. It also means you should not send us CVs on spec.
Click here to find out about career opportunities at the MA
How many people visit museums?
Visits to museums have greatly increased in recent years. There is no up-to-date figure for total visits in the UK but it is likely to exceed 100 million a year.
According to 2009 research, 45.8 per cent of adults living in England made at least one museum visit in the previous year. Visits from children are higher still, with two-thirds of 5 to 10-year-olds and 59 per cent of 11 to 15-year-olds attending a museum or gallery at least once during that period.
The MA's ...Love Museums advocacy scheme has compiled further statistics on UK attendance rates.
Click here to see ...Love Museums facts and figures
The top five most visited museums in the UK in 2009 were*:
1. British Museum - 5,569,981
2. The National Gallery - 4,780,030
3. Tate Modern - 4,747,537
4. Natural History Museum - 4,105,106
5. Science Museum (South Kensington) - 2,793,930
*Source: Association of Leading Visitor Attractions (www.alva.org.uk)
I want to donate something to a museum
Try contacting museums with suitable collections directly. Or you could place a notice in Museums Journal. Please send details to: The List, Museums Journal, 42 Clerkenwell Close, London EC1R 0AZ, Fax: 020 7566 7836, Email: email@example.com
Museums wishing to find or dispose of objects can advertise for free on our Find an object database.
Click here to access the Find an object database
I want to set up a new museum
Anybody thinking of setting up a new museum should consider how it could be sustained over time. The climate for setting up a new museum is difficult, public money is not easily available and existing museums are finding it increasingly hard to meet revenue costs.
Big Questions, Big Answers, published by Museums Galleries Scotland offers step-by-step guidance on the planning process for anyone considering opening a museum. To obtain a copy contact: Museums Galleries Scotland, 1 Papermill Wynd, McDonald Road,
Edinburgh EH7 4QL. Tel: 0131 550 4100
Where can I find out about copyright?
The best guidance can be found in A Guide to Copyright for Museums and Galleries, produced by the Museums Copyright Group and published by Routledge, ISBN: 0-415-21721-0.
Written by three legal specialists, Peter Wienand, Anna Booy and Robin Fry, the book offers a wealth of practical advice and information, including a series of photocopiable sample legal agreements covering matters such as filming, publishing, licensing rights and multi-media issues.
Available from bookshops or directly from the website: www.routledge.co.uk
Further resources are available on: www.museumscopyright.org.uk
I want to find…
...a museum-related company or consultant
Look no further. The Museums Association website has a large, searchable database of over 400 companies catering for over 120 different categories.
Click here to search the suppliers database
You can also order free copies of the Museum Services Directory, which is comprehensively updated and published in April every year.
...a museum in the UK
The Museums & Galleries Yearbook has an extensive directory of museums in the UK, listed by area.
Click here for the Museums & Galleries Yearbook
Culture24 is an online resource with a search facility for museums and related articles, events and educational resources.
...a museum abroad
Try the Virtual Library Museum Pages website:
Alternatively, German publisher De Gruyter Saur publishes a museum directory called Museums of the World, ISBN 978-3-598-20696-2, offering information on over 41,600 museums in 199 countries.
...a particular kind of museum collection
Cornucopia is an online database of information about more than 6,000 collections in the UK's museums, galleries, archives and libraries. It allows you to search museum collections by type.
Collections Link is a network that enables people working in archives, libraries and museums to share their collections knowledge. The organisation has created a directory of subject-specialist networks that may help you identify where specific collections are held.
Click here to download the Directory from the Collections Link website
You could also try the MA's Museums & Galleries Yearbook, which carries brief descriptions of each museum's collections.
Click here for more on the Museums & Galleries Yearbook
Other reference books include: Directory of Museums, Galleries and Buildings of Historic Interest, 4th Edition, edited by Bob Duckett, ISSN 0950-4125, Taylor & Francis Group; The Essential Guide to Collectibles: A Source Book of Public Collections in Europe and the USA, Alistair McAlpine & Cathy Giangrande, ISBN 1-84159-080-0.
ICON, The Institute of Conservation is the lead voice for the conservation of cultural heritage in the UK. It operates an accreditation scheme and the Conservation Register, a national database of conservators and restorers.
...someone to value an object
Museum staff are happy to offer information about objects brought in by members of the public for identification, but they do not give financial valuations.
If you would like to find out the commercial value of an object you need to find a reputable dealer or auction house. Museums have to concentrate on what they do best - informing and advising on the historical and cultural significance of an object.
The expertise of curators and museum professionals differs from those in the commercial sector. Most do not keep up with current trends in the art or antiques market, so they would be unable to offer a member of the public the most well-informed and accurate valuation.